Calimanesti-Caciulata-Cozia regions are located in Valcea County, at the foothills of Southern Carpathians, on the bank of Olt River, at approximately 260 m altitude.
Predominant is the mountain area consisting in Cozia Mountains, Capatanii Mountains, Olt Pass in Cozia and Lotrisorului Valley sector.
The climate is continental – temperate, without sudden temperature changes, characteristic to sub-Carpathian depressions. The annual average is 9.7 degrees Celsius, the average temperature in July being of 19 degrees Celsius, and in January of -1.5 degrees Celsius. The annual average rainfall is between 60% and 80%. The climate is extremely favourable for spa treatments, not having sudden variations of temperature and humidity.
The main water stream is Old River, complemented by the springs, which make the resorts famous. The main tributaries are Lotrisor Stream, on the right bank, and Pausa Stream and Coisca Stream on the left bank.
Puturoasa Valley, Postei Valley, Caciulata Valley, Rostea Valley, Carpanoasa Valley, on the right bank, and Satului Valley, on the left bank, have a torrential character, their flow becoming more important only after heavy rainfalls or snow melting.
Calimanesti-Caiulata-Cozia is a health resort, which was first documented in 1386, and it is renown at international level (based on the recommendation of Doctor Carol Davila, Napoleon III was treated with mineral water brought from these springs). This region is known from the time of Dacians, who discovered the beneficial effects of the thermal waters from the area.
Calimanesti-Caciulata-Cozia area has been inhabited from ancient times, and the proof is the treasury of Dacian coins and castra from Jiblea and Arutela.
It is said that the establishment was formed in the 5th-8th centuries, when the old village community divided between a few influential people, among whom Caliman, who settled on the territory of Calimanesti. It is presumed that the name of the locality derives from his name.
The first documented mention of the locality was on May 20th, 1388, when Mircea I of Wallachia received from Nan Udaba “the place called Calimanesti pe Olt”, and the ruler dedicated that place to Cozia Monastery. In 1890, Calimanesti-Caciulata became a resort, and in 1927 it was declared city.
Various scientists have been researching the miraculous effects of the streams from the resort: 1829 – Mr. Mayer, by the order of the ruler Grigore Ghica; C. Fr. Siller; 1854 – the French doctor Joseph Caillat; 1855 – Carol Davila recommended to the French emperor Napoleon III, a course of treatment with these waters.